A-Z Nutrition, Nutrient, Vitamin and Mineral Glossary A-Z

 

A (Retinol)
Vitamin A is a vitamin with antioxidant properties, important for eye protection and bone growth; protein and hormone synthesis (including GH and testosterone); supports tissue maintenance. Helps reduce susceptibility to infection. Essential for healthy skin, good blood, strong bones and teeth, kidneys, bladder, lungs and membranes.
Acesulfame-K
An artificial sweetener. Approved in 1988, this sweetener is 200 times sweeter than sugar, yet has a bitter taste. The 'K' in its name stands or potassium. Acesulfame-K is not metabolized by the body. You can cook and bake with it. There are no reported side effects with this sweetener although it may increase insulun secretion, which can cause concern for diabetics.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC)
The acetyl ester of carnitine, ALC acts as an antioxidant, has protective effects in the brain, and stimulates hormone (including testosterone) release.

Alanine
An amino acid. BCAAs are used as a source of energy for muscle cells. During prolonged exercise, BCAAs are released from skeletal muscles and their carbon backbones are used as fuel, while their nitrogen portion is used to form another amino acid, Alanine. Alanine is then converted to Glucose by the liver. This form of energy production is called the Alanine-Glucose cycle, and it plays a major role in maintaining the body's blood sugar balance.

Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)
A sulfur bearing phytonutrient with antioxidant properties; amplifies effects of other antioxidants. It is an insulin potentiator that may be, in some respects, the very best insulin mimicker. An analogy of what ALA does is that if ALA was an individual, he would be the one which yells at the muscle cells to pick up the key, open the door, and help bring in the creatine.

ALA is a sulfur bearing compound with antioxidant properties. It plays a role in energy metabolism. ALA amplifies the ability of other antioxidants to combat free redicals and enhance recovery. Also may enhance insulin sensitivity, improving the body's ability to add lean mass and reduce fat.

Amino Acids
Nitrogen-bearing organic acids that are the building blocks of protein. The branched chain amino acids are Leucine, Valine and Isoleucine.

Anabolic
Metabolic condition in which new molecules are synthesized (growth).

Androstenedione
An androgen (male hormone). Androgens are produced in two sites in the male body - most originate in the testes, but some potent male hormones are produced by the adrenal glands, located just above the kidneys. Androstenedione is a pivotal adrenal steroid that's actually one step closer to being converted to testosterone than DHEA. It raises your testosterone levels and can provide more strength.

Androstenedione really does raise testosterone above normal levels and could be hazardous. Side effects include acne, male baldness, and a decrease in 'good' cholesterol, which may lead to heart disease. This supplement might be reclassified as a steroid by the FDA, and it is banned in the NFL, Olympics, and other major sports organizations.

Antioxidants
Any substances that prevent or impede cell oxidation (destruction) by free radicals, etc.

Arginine
A conditionally essential amino acid with anabolic and immune system supportive effects. It is required for growth, immune function, wound healing and many aspects of protein metabolism. Arginine is necessary for the production of growth hormone. It is also a precursor for nitric oxide, a critical substance that helps regulate the function of cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems and which is essential for muscle growth.

Ascorbic Acid
Also known as Vitamin C. A water soluble vitamin, and an antioxidant. Your body cannot store Vitamin C, so you must supplement it regularly. It is not resistant to heat, so cooking will destroy it. Vitamin C functions primarily in the formation of collagen, the chief protein substance of your body's framework. It also helps in the production of vital body chemicals. Vitamin C also is a detoxifier (helping cleanse your body of toxins).

Aspartame
An artificial sweetener. Known by the trade name NutraSweet, it is an artificial sweetener. Certain people should avoid products that contain Aspartame. They are people who cannot metabolize the amino acid Phenylalanine, which is an ingredient in aspartame; and people who are suspectable to headaches. It is nearly 200 times sweeter than sugar. Aspartame is produced from the amino acids L-asartic acid and L=phenylalannine. It has been approved for use in certain goods since 1981. Heat causes aspartame to lose its sweetness, therefore, you can't bake with it. Unlike some sweetners, it has no aftertaste.

An analysis of peer reviewed medical literature using MEDLINE and other databases was conducted by Ralph G. Walton, MD, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine, Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. Dr. Walton analyzed 164 studies which were felt to have relevance to human safety questions. Of those studies, 74 studies had aspartame industry-related sponsorship and 90 were funded without any industry money.

Of the 90 non-industry-sponsored studies, 83 (92%) identified one or more problems with aspartame. Of the 7 studies which did not find a problems, 6 of those studies were conducted by the FDA. Given that a number of FDA officials went to work for the aspartame industry immediately following approval (including the former FDA Commissioner), many consider these studies to be equivalent to industry-sponsored research.

Aspirin
Said to reduce soreness after a hard workout, or lower your risk of heart disease. Can also reduce your risk for throat or stomach cancer.

ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
The body's energy currency, released when fuel molecules are broken down.

B-Complex Vitamins
A group of eleven known vitamins that work together in your body. All play vital roles in the conversion of food into energy. Essential for the normal functioning of the nervous system, and the maintenance of good digestion. Helps promote healthy skin, hair, and eyes. These are water soluble vitamins, which means they cannot be stored by your body and must be replaced every day.

B-1 (Thiamin)
A vitamin which maintains energy levels, supports brain function (memory). Aids in digestion. Necessary for metabolism of sugar and starch to provide energy. Maintains a healthy nervous system. Alcohol can cause deficiencies of this vitamin and all the B-complex vitamins.

B-2 (Riboflavin)
A vitamin which helps with energy production and amino acid production. Helps body obtain energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Helps maintain good vision and healthy skin.

B-3 (Niacin)
A vitamin Important in carbohydrate metabolism, formation of testosterone and other hormones, formation of red blood cells and maintaining the integrity of all cells. Helps body utilize protein, fats, and carbohydrates. Necessary for a healthy nervous system and digestive system. It also lowers elevated blood cholesterol levels when taken in large amounts of more than 1,000 milligrams a day.

B-5 (Pantothenic Acid)
A vitamin which supports carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism; hemoglobin synthesis. Helps release energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Needed to support a variety of body functions, including the maintenance of a healthy digestive system.

B-6 (Pyridoxine)
A vitamin which supports glycogen and nitrogen metabolism; production and transport of amino acids; production and maintenance of red blood cells (hemoglobin) Essential for the body's utilization of protein. Needed for the production of red blood cells, nerve tissues, and antibodies. Women taking oral contraceptives have lower levels of B-6.

B-12 (Cobalamin)
Necessary for carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Important to amino acid and fatty acid synthesis; essential for hemoglobin and nerve cell growth and maintenance. The anti-stress vitamin, sometimes prescribed for stress reduction. See also homocysteine

BCAA's (Branch Chain Amino Acids)
Leucine, Valine, and Isoleucine are called "branch chain" aminos due to their molecular structure, and are important essential amino acids well known for their anticatabolic (muscle-saving) benefits. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's postively affect skeletal muscle growth, enhance fat loss, help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentiate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of postive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burns fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more bodyfat than those not taking BCAA's.

BCAAs are used as a source of energy for muscle cells. During prolonged exercise, BCAAs are released from skeletal muscles and their carbon backbones are used as fuel, while their nitrogen portion is used to form another amino acid, Alanine. Alanine is then converted to Glucose by the liver. This form of energy production is called the Alanine-Glucose cycle, and it plays a major role in maintaining the body's blood sugar balance.

Beta-carotene
A phytonutrient carotenoid with antioxidant and provitamin A activity. In addition to providing the body with a safe source of Vitamin A, beta carotene works with other natural protectors to defend your cells from harmful free radical damage. This is an important micrinutrient in helping the body with metabolic functions, such as recovery from exercise.

Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB)
It is a compound mande in the body and a metabolite of the essential amino acid Leucine. Studies have found that HMB has a decrease in stress-induced muscle protein breakdown. Studies also found that HMB may enhance increases in both muscle size and strength when combined with resistance training.

There are a number of theories why you may need HMB. The first, is that under stressful conditions, the body may not make enough HMB to satisfy the increased needs of tissues. It could also be that stress may alter enzymes or concentration of certain biochemicals that decrease normal HMB production. Another theory is that HMB may regulated enzymes sresponsible for muscle tissue breakdown.

Biological Value (BV)
An attempt to measure how efficiently protein us used in the body. Biological Value is derived from providing a measure intake of protein, then noting the nitrogen uptake versus nitrogen excretion. The actually process is much more complicated though. In theory, a BV value of 100 is maximal. Some studies claim they have a higher BV than 100, but they refer to a chemical score, not the biological value of whey.

Biotin
A vitamin that helps with energy metabolism, fatty acid and nucleic acid synthesis.

Boron
It is a trace mineral. Studies show that Boron helps the body retain minerals, such as Calcium and Magnesium. Large amounts of Boron, over 10 milligrams a day, can be toxic, particularly to the organs that manufacture testosterone. You can find traces of Boron in all the food groups, even in wine, with the greatest concentration in prunes, raisins, parsley flakes, apples and almonds. A 1987 study showed that Boron could dramatically increase testosterone levels, however, the study was for postmenopausal women who had testosterone deficiencies. Once their boron-rich diets brought their testosterone levels back up to normal, those levels stabilized, and they didn't get any higher no matter how many more prunes or parsley flakes that they ate. Thus, it is somewhat unproven that boron can help build muscle mass by increasing your testosterone levels. However, a lack of boron in your diet may have a 'negative' impact on energy utilization.

Bovine cartilage
A source of mucopolysaccharides which have anti-inflamatory and joint protective properties.

Bovine Colostrum
Usually from cows, a dairy product that has similar properties to human colostrum. Normally, adults cannot absorb colotrum's antobodies and growth factors the way a newborn can. But it still has superior nutritional values which may make it a useful supplement.

Buckwheat
Not in fact a wheat but a "pseudo grain", a plant native to Asia that has fragrant white flowers and small triangular seeds. The edible seeds are often ground into flour. According to some studies, buckwheat is better than casein (a milk protein) for promoting muscle growth and body growth and decreasing blood lipds. For persons allergic to wheat gluten, it provides a gluten-free food with uses similar to gains. Roasted buckwheat is known as Kasha. Buckwheat is usually available as flour.

Caffeine
Alkaloid that stimulates alertness and boosts energy. A herbal compound that enhances alertness and fights fatigue. Caffeine increases endurance during prolonged submaximal activity by increasing blood epinephrine (adrenaline) levels, thereby allowing fat cells to break down more readily during aerobic activity. Caffeine also makes a muscle contraction more forceful.

Calcium
Most abundant mineral in the body; essential for the formation and repair of bone and teeth, but also essential to nerve transmission, muscle contraction, blood clotting and other metabolic activities as well. Long term calcium deficiency is linked to degenerative bone diseases. Vitamin D, vitamin K, and magnesium are key nutrients needed to retain and utilize calcium in the body.

Carbohydrate
There are two basic forms of carbohydrates: Simple & Complex. Simple carbs are usually devoid of fiber and include such foods as refined sugars, fruit juices, and apple sauce. The problem with simple carbs is that they promote a large insulin surge, which can lead to hypoglycemia. Complex carbs are absorbed more slowly, so they don't cause as great an insulin surge as the simple type. Primary macronutrient source of energy in the body; burned as glucose and stored in muscle as glycogen (excess stored as fat) and includes all sugars (1 gram yields 4 calories).

Carnitine (L-Carnitine)
Non-structural amino acid that transports fatty acids into muscle cells for use as energy fuel. Carnitine is water-soluble and can be made in the body from the amino acids lysine and methionine with the assistance of vitamins C, B6 and Niacin, which act as coenzymes in the process.

Carnitine as discovered in meat in 1905, and was once called Vitamin T, because they thought it was a vitamin at first. 98% of te body's carntine exists in the heart and skelatal muscles. Carnitine is synthesized in the liver from Lysiine and Methionine, but half of meateater's body's daily requirement for Carnitine comes from foods sources, including meat, poultry, fish and some diary products. Without supplemental carnitine, some people cannot use fat as energy.

Casein
Primary protein found in milk, along with whey protein. Casein is the insoluble protein fraction of milk. It is absorbed more slowly than whey and provides the body with amino acids over an extended period in comparison to whey protein, the soluble protein fraction in milk.

Catabolic
Metabolic condition in which muscle is broken down and energy is released.

Catabolism
Protein breakdown in muscles.

Cat's Claw
An herb used in South American folk medicine for its anti-inflamatory and immune system protective properties.

Chitosan
Chitosan is a natural product extracted from Chitin (by products of Crustacean shell extracts). Chitosan and chitin are waste products of the crab and shrimp industry. It can be used to inhibit fat digestion and as a drug delivery transport agent. It also has been used as a cholesterol lowering substance. Chitosan is marketed as a 'fat blocker'. It appears that it can impede fat absorption by 'gelling' with fat in the small intestine. Side effect of Chitosan is that since it is made from sea food, some people have allergic responses to it. Also, you need a high concentration of Chitosan for it to 'gel' with fat.

Choline
Choline, a dietary component of many foods, is part of several major phospholipids (including phosphatidylcholine - also called lecithin) that are critical for normal membrane structure and function. The major precursor of betaine, it is used by the kidney to maintain water balance and by the liver as a source of methyl-groups for methionine formation. Also, choline is used to produce the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In the body choline is mainly found in phospholipids, such as lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) and sphingomyelin. The outer leaflet of plasma membrane is rich in these choline-phospholipids whereas the inner leaflet is dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol. Phosphatidylcholine, the predominant phospholipid (>50%) in most mammalian membranes, not only contributes to the structure of the membrane bilayer, but products of receptor-mediated lecithin hydrolysis also serve as important second messengers in signal cascades that control cell growth and gene expression. Disaturated phosphatidylcholine is the primary active component of surfactant in the lung; a deficiency of surfactant in the neonate leads to respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants.

Cholesterol
A fat-like sterol used by the body for production of hormones (including testosterone), vitamin D and cell membranes; high levels in the blood stream are a marker for heart disease.

Chondroitin
Chondroitin is extracted from bovine tracheas or shark cartilage. It is a major component of connective tissue, especially cartilage. Chondroitin is claimed to stimulate repair of cartilage cells and also block enzymes that damage joints.

Chromium / Chrimium Picolinate
Chromium increases the efficiency of the hormone insulin, which the pancreas releases after you eat carbohydrates or protein. Chromium acts to make the receptor of muscle cells more sensitive to insulin (which allows you to store more carbohydrates in the muscle cells as glycogen rather than in fat cells as lipids). Insulin also helps muscles use amino acids for building protein rather than breaking them down. Chromium can promote modest muscular gains and decreases in bodyfat (thus helps build lean mass). Exercise increases the excretion rate of chromium.

Chrysin
An anti-aromatase, which means it stops a lot of excess testosterone from converting to estrogen. Also, a compound with significant antiviral activity - especially in relation to the HIV. A an effect on the benzodiazapene receptors (which have a calming, antistress effect). It is possible that Chrysin taken in the correct dosage could reduce cortisol secretion due to the body's sensing less stress. Chrysin may act as an antiestrogen by inhibiting aromatase activity, limiting the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.

Citrimax
See Hydroxycitrate

Clenbuterol
This drug is classified as a Beta-2 agonist, and is used for treating asthma. It is not an anabolic steroid, or a growth hormone. Currently, it is not approved for sale in the United States, but it is sold in Europe, under various names, such as Spiropent, Monores, and Ventipulmin. Researchers in 1987 noted an unusual effect when using this drug. Muscles grew, while they lost body fat. The main side effects associated with this drug include tremors, heart rhythm disturbances, headaches, nervousness, excessive sweating and insomnia. Bodybuilders use it because it mimics the actions of Epinephrine. It simulates a process called Thermogenesis, which turns fat calories into heat and which results in a loss of body fat. The side effects start when you use more than 80 micrograms or more. The dosage that's used to treat asthma is around 20 to 40 micrograms twice a day. The muscle building dose would be over 80 micrograms in humans, but scientists consider it to be dangerous and unethical. Another problem is that any effects you get from it wears off rapidly. Bodybuilders who have used this drug shows that it is better for promoting fat burning than for muscle building.

Coenzyme Q10
This antioxidant is shown to have heart protective and energy productive properties. COQ10 is involved in cellular energy production. Several studies have reported improved endurance after taking CoQ10. It is considered one of the best antioxidants.

Colostrum
Colostrum is a fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals prior to milk production. It has a high concentration of immunoglobins, antimicrobial agents and hormone factors. Colostrum provides major immune and gastrointestinal system benefits.

Bovine Colostrum comes from cows, a dairy product . Normally, adults cannot absorb colotrum's antibodies and growth factors the way a baby can.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
CLA occurs naturally in organic whole milk and red meat. A collective term used to designate a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of the essential fat linoleic acid. It is actually a fat, derived from linoleic acid (an essential fatty acid). Studies have shown that CLA can increase lean body mass and decrease fat, inhibit the growth of tumors and enhance immune function. CLA is found naturally in organic beef, cheese and whole milk.

Copper
Active in the storage and release of iron to form hemoglobin for red blood cells.

Cortisol
A catabolic hormone that is released and increases in response to stress when the body is subjected to trauma such as intense exercises, including weight training. Excess cortisol is known to increase catabolism (protein breakdown in muscles). Cortisol leads to muscle breakdown through promoting a release of muscle amino acids for transport to the liver, where the amino acids are coverted into glucose.

Creatine (monohydrate)
A muscle fuel that is extracted naturally from meat and fish, or synthesized in the lab. Once it is in the muscles, creatine combines with phosphorous to make Creatine Phosphate (CP), a high powered chemical that rebuilds the muscles ultimate energy source, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). CP powers your muscles for high intensity exercise for short periods only, consequently, athletes who compete in power and sprint event will have an advantage if they take supplemental creatine. More CP in the muscle cell translates into a greater resistance to fatigue. Also, CP helps with the transfer of energy in the muscle cells, thus speeding up the action, which may enhance performances that are aerobically taxing. Reports says people who take creatine supplements may recover from intense activity faster and experience less postexercise muscle soreness.

Creatine is a naturally occurring compound in the muscle tissue and when converted in the muscle tissue to phosphocreatine during exercise can provide sudden bursts of energy. Insufficient amounts of phosphocreatine could result in a fatigued feeling in the muscle. The Creatine Monohydrate Powder provides enough energy to delay to onset of fatigue. Creatine Monohydrate is a synthesized metabolite that is the powerful energizer providing instant energy and strength with better endurance and helps to maintain optimal levels of ATP production during intense exercise.

Why Monohydrate? Creatine comes in several forms. Creatine Monohydrate, Creatine Phosphate, and liquid form. Creatine Phosphate is much more expensive to manufacture while it offers no advantage. Liquid creatine has many problems associated with it. When mixing creatine monohydrate with a protein drink, or water, the creatine starts to become unstable. Within 24 hours, the creatine begins to change or ‘fallout’ into creatinine. Creatinine is a useless substance to the body. Thus, buying a premixed liquid form of creatine is not a legitimate product. The best absorbed form of creatine is the creatine monohydrate. Creatine monohydrate is better absorbed because it is more stable, resulting in higher concentration of available creatine.

Creatine & ATP. ATP is the molecule that releases the energy for contraction of muscles, the breakdown and synthesis of proteins and all other reactions requiring energy. In short, ATP is the energy molecule powering all of our movements. By giving off its energy through its high energy phosphate bond, ATP is reduced to ADP. The problem is that the amount of ATP that is stored in our cells is limited. Depending on the intensity of the activity, ATP supplies can be used up by converting to ADP within seconds. So how do athletes run or workout for long periods. We can do that because there are three way to replenish ATP.

1) You can restore ATP using energy derived from the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates. This is a slow process that occurs in the mitochondria. 2) You can restore ATP through lactic acid, which is utilized to produce energy, which turns ADP back into ATP. 3) Through Creatine Monohydrate, which helps creatine phosphate create more ATP from ADP within seconds. It is a short term, high energy backup for ATP. It does not need carbohydrates, fats or oxygen to recharge ATP.

Diuretic
Any agent or compound that increases the flow of urine from the body. They can range from herbal teas to powerful drugs that flush out electrolytes and water. They are classed based on the location and mechanism of action in the kidneys. Athletes use diuretics to eliminate water weight to further emphasize their muscular definitions. Most bodybuilding and fitness federations have banned the use of diurectics and test for them.

DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)
A hormone made by the adrenal glands used by the body to make male (androgen) and female (estrogen) hormones; possible positive effects on mood and energy on older individuals (40+) whose production of DHEA has declined. As been referred to as the 'Fountain of Youth' hotmone bacause it declines rapidly as we age, and supplementation with this hormone reverses many of the ravages associated with aging. Studies show that men with the highest DHEA levels have better cardiovascular health.

DMAE (Dimethyl-amino-ethanol)
Supplement reported to minimize buildup of lipofuscin (age spots) in the brain. Plays a participatory role in acetycholine synthesis. DMAE has been shown to stimulate vivid, lucid dreams, suggesting possible sleep pattern enhancement.

DNP (2,4 dinitrophenol)
the first weight loss drug ever offered to the public, around 1933. DNP is a yellow crystalline sold that's slightly soluable in water. After being injected, it increases the metabolism an average of 30% over baseline in less than a minute, returning back to normal anywhere from 6 to 48 hours. However, DNP has many side effects, including blinding people, and if you take too much of it, it can cook you to death from the inside. You can lose weight with it, but it is highly dangerous. Street Names for DNP include Hexalon.

DOMS (Delayed-onset muscle soreness)
The pain and soreness you feel a few days after a heavy workout.

ECA Stack
A thermagenic supplement blend of Ephedra, Caffeine and Aspirin that is popular among fitness and bodybuilding cultures. It is said that these three ingredients give a synergistic effect together which give better results than any one on its own.

Echincea
Herb with immune protective properties, shown to have some benefit protecting against colds and flu. It can be used as a preventive measure to protect the body against the natural stress the immune system suffers in heavy training.

Egg protein
Source of protein with high Protein Efficiency Ratio, usually in egg white form (albumin) when used in protein powder to avoid cholesterol in egg yolk. Egg protein is the standard by which all other proteins are measured because of its very high ration of indispensable amino acids (also called essential amino acids because they must be supplied to the body from food or supplements) to dispensable amino acids.

Ephedra / Ephedrine
The active ingredient in the Oriental herb Ma Huang (Ephedra sinensis); this chemical has been proven to be both a powerful energizer and weight loss aid. Ephedrine is a powerful thermogenic agent: It releases norepinephrine, a brain neurotransmitter than exerts a stimulating effect. This same neurotransmitter signals the sympathetic nervous system, which is called into play during a 'fight or flight' response. Body temperature rises and promotes the breakdown of fat cells for fuel.

Use ephedrine for short periods only. Cycling ephedrine can help you avoid side effects as well as improve results of your hard training. Ephedrine, taken with caffeine, can increase each other's ability to induce lipolysis (fat burning). Ephedrine acts at your body's nerve junctions, changing the release and activity of norepinephrine as well as acting on your beta-2 adrenergic receptors.

Ergogenic aids
Any nutrients that improve athletic performance.

Essential Fatty Acids (EFA)
They include Linoleic Acid, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Monounsaturated fats. These are considered the 'good' fats. They cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by our diet. You need approxiamately 2% of your daily calories as EFA's. By consuming plenty of EFAs, you supply your body with the appropriate precursors to form cell membranes and regulatory eicosanoids.

Fat
Macronutrient that is a source for long term energy and energy storage (as adipose tissue); necessary for absorption and transport of fat-soluble vitamins and constituant of hormones and cell membranes.

One gram of fat equals nine calories. There are 455 grams in one pound. So nine calories times 455 grams equals 4,025 calories per pound of fat. So, technically, you need to lose 4,025 calories to lose one pound of fat.

Fiber
The more insoluble the fiber is (fiber that does not dissolve in water), the better it is for you. Insoluble fiber reduces the risk of colon cancer and high blood pressure. Fruit fiber seems to be more beneficial then vegetable or cereal fibers, probably because fruits are loaded with Pectin, an insoluble fiber. As a rule, the higher the insolubility, the fewer the calories. Corn bran is the best, followed by wheat bran, and then oat bran. It is best to eat fiber after you work out to avoid intestinal discomfort.

Flavonoids
A group of compounds widely distributed in plants which have a characteristic molecular structure. They have been found to have many beneficial activities, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties.

Flaxseed Oil
Flaxseed is an excellent source of the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (an EFA). Supplementing with flaxseed oil has been shown to lower cholesterol, decrease heart disease, increase satiety and improve cell integrity.

Free Radicals
Free radicals are highly reactive molecules in the body which can destroy tissues by oxidizing cell membrane lipids and damaging DNA, the body's genetic material. Free redicals are produced through the body's normal process of metabolizing the air we breath and the food we eat, as well as exposure to tabacco smoke, excess sunlight and environmental pollutants. Antioxidants work in the body by neutralizing free radicals before the can do significant harm.

Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL)
A related product to GHB (Gamma hydroxybutyrate).

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)
GHB is a simple carbohydrate fond naturally in every cell of the human body. GHB is both a metabolite of and a precursor to an amino acid called GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid). The FDA has labeled GHB has a 'date-rape' drug, and wants to ban it from the market. GHB itself does not cause a person to remain conscious, engage in sex and then forget what they did. The problems occur when you take GHB with high levels of alcohol, since both alcohol and GHB are metabolized by the same enzyme in the body.

Garcinia Cambogia
Fruit from India that contains Hydroxicitric Acid (-HCA), an organic acid influencing carbohydrate and fat metabolism

Genistein
A compound thought to protect you against cancer. It is found in soy based food products. It surpresses the production of stress proteins in cells, proteins that otherwise help cancer cells survive destruction by the immune system.

Ginkgo Biloba
A herb shown to enhance mental accuity. Some research has shown that Ginkgo Biloba increases cerebral blood flow to the brain. Also, boost brain levels of adenosine triphosphate and scavenge free radicals. Combined with ginger, gingko has also been shown too reduce stress induced anxiety.

Ginseng
A family of herbs with adaptogenic properties affecting energy. There are different ginsengs (Asian, American, Siberian). Some ginsengs have shown to have mental enhancing effects. Studies show that an individual ginseng component called ginsenoside Rb acts favorably in reversing memory deficits by increasing he secretion of acetychilone. Studies also suggest that ginseng extract improved learning and retention processes.

Glucomannan
A fiber derived from the Amorphophallus Konjac root, a perennial plant of the Araceae family. The root is low in protein, lipids (fats), calories and vitamins, but, because of its glucomannan content, it can provide many tangible bodybuilding and health advantages. Glucomannan can help mitigate insulin response to high glycemic corbohydrates, which might allow bodybuilders to add variety to low carb diets and still accrue the benefits of the regimens. Glucomannan may also help remove fat from the body.

Glucosamine
Organic compound found in cartilage and joint fluid; relieves joint pain and may help in healing some joint injuries. Glucosamine is a provider of the building blocks of joints. Usually made from shells but vegetarian versions are now available.

Glucose (monosaccharide)
Type of sugar that circulates in the bloodstream, thus the term 'blood glucose levels' or 'blood sugar'. All carbohydrates, whether simple or complex, are eventually converted to glucose in the body. Glycogen is many units of glucose together.

Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF)
GTF is thought to be a complex of chromium, nicotinic acid, and the amino acids glycine, cystein and glutamic acid (these aminos are components of gluthathione). GTF is thought to be synthesize by the liver. In many people, chromium is likely the deficient substrate for GTF formation. GTF is found in foods such as organ meats, whole gains, cheese, mushrooms and brewer's yeast.

Glutamine
An amino acid. Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle tissue. Studies are beginning to show that having extra glutamine in your body may be important to maximize muscle growth, by increasing growth hormone levels. Glutamine also is important to maintain proper health, and is shown to have anabolic and anticatabolic properties. During intense training, the signal for muscle breakdown (which is a bad thing) may be the release of skeletal muscle glutamine. That means that each time you train, your muscles release glutamine which in part triggers a catabolic state (a catabolic state is synonymous with muscle breakdown). By proving Glutamine, documented clinical studies have shown that Glutamine will have a significant impact on maintaining a positive nitrogen balance which is essential to muscular development and recovery.

Glycemic Index (GI)
The glycemic index (GI) compares the potential of foods containing the same amount of carbohydrate to raise blood glucose. However, the amount of carbohydrate consumed also affects blood glucose levels and insulin responses.To determine the glycemic index of a food, volunteers are typically given a test food that provides 50 grams of carbohydrate and a control food (white bread or pure glucose) that provides the same amount of carbohydrate on different days . Blood samples for the determination of glucose are taken prior to eating and at regular intervals after eating over the next several hours. The changes in blood glucose over time are plotted as a curve. The glycemic index is calculated as the area under the glucose curve after the test food is eaten, divided by the corresponding area after the control food is eaten. The value is multiplied by 100 to represent a percentage of the control food. For example, a baked potato has a glycemic index of 85 relative to glucose and 121 relative to white bread, which means that the blood glucose response to the carbohydrate in a baked potato is 85% of the blood glucose response to the same amount of carbohydrate in pure glucose and 121% of the blood glucose response to the same amount of carbohydrate in white bread.. In contrast, cooked brown rice has a glycemic index of 55 relative to glucose and 79 relative to white bread. In the traditional system of classifying carbohydrates, both brown rice and potato would be classified as complex carbohydrates despite the difference in their effects on blood glucose levels.

Glycemic Load (GL)

The glycemic load (GL) of a food is calculated by multiplying the glycemic index by the amount of carbohydrate in grams provided by a food and dividing the total by 100. In essence, each unit of the glycemic load represents the equivalent blood glucose-raising effect of 1 gram of pure glucose or white bread . The concept of glycemic load was developed by scientists to simultaneously describe the quality (glycemic index) and quantity of carbohydrate in a meal or diet. By definition, the consumption of high-glycemic index foods results in higher and more rapid increases in blood glucose levels than the consumption of low-glycemic index foods. Rapid increases in blood glucose are potent signals to the beta-cells of the pancreas to increase insulin secretion . Over the next few hours, the high insulin levels induced by consumption of high-glycemic index foods may cause a sharp decrease in blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). In contrast, the consumption of low-glycemic index foods results in lower but more sustained increases in blood glucose and lower insulin demands on pancreatic beta-cells

Glycerin
Glycerin is a trihydric alcohol that is derived from animal fats and plants emollients. It is used in many protein bars to give the bar a soft texture and to make it easy to chew. Glycerin yields 4.32 calories per gram. Glycerin is a crystalline, viscous liquid formed when fat molecules split. It is half as sweet as sugar and is used to keep bars moist and to plasticize other foods such as fudge, gum, geltin, etc. The big question is if glycerin is a carb or is it a new 'category'. The reason that glycerin is not listed as a carbohydrate by some manufacturers is that glycerin does not effect blood glucose or insulin levels. However, the FDA states that glycerin is to be listed as a carbohydrate; thus the controversy.

Glycogen
It is a term for many units of glucose strung together. The body stores glycogen in two areas, the liver and the muscles. Only about 5 grams, or 20 calories worth of glucose flows in the blood. Liver stores about 75 to 100 grams, or 300 to 400 calories; an hour of aerobics can burn up half the liver glycogen content. The muscles store around 360 grams, or 1,440 calories. Carbohydrate loading is one technique used to increase muscle glycogen content. By not consuming enough carbohydrates, you deplete both liver and muscle glycogen reserves. While complex carbs are considered to be more desirable than simple carbs, simple carbs are more efficient after a workout for replacing muscle glycogen. Simple carbs are absorbed faster, and promote a greater insulin output. Body Builders reccommend a carbohydrate drink with at least 50 grams of carbs after exercise.

Glycogen (Muscle)
Muscle glycogen is extremely important for bodybuilding, since it's the primary fuel that powers anaerobic training, such as lifting weights. Glycogen that's stored in a muscle is available only to that muscle because muscles lack a certain enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase, that's needed to release glucose into the blood. Muscles can absorb glucose without insulin, which why exercise helps prevent diabetes.

Glycogen (Liver)
Liver glycogen is a fuel reserve that helps maintain blood glucose levels. This is important because the brain relies on a constant supply of glucose to function properly.

Grape Seed Extract
Source of proanthocyanadins, an important antioxidant.

Green Tea
Perhaps more notable, recent research has shown that green tea reduces the risk of developing stomach cancer by 50% and esophageal cancer by 6-%. No one knows for sure, but scientists think that polyphenols in green tea protect health by combating free radicals.

The main constituents of green tea are polyphenols, caffeien, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds, it also contains small amounts of carbohydrates and lipids. Also, green tea contains polyphenols, theanine, and catechins. The greater the theanine content in green tea, the higher the price.

Growth Hormone
Known in the medical community as somatotropin. It is a powerful anabolic hormone that affects all systems of the body and plays an important role in muscle growth. It is a peptite hormone, which is composed of many amino acids (191 of them) linked together. It is rapidly metabolized by the liver and has a half-life in the blood of approxiamately 17 to 45 minutes. Because of this, detecting GH in a drug screen is very hard.

Guarana
Source of caffeine. Comes from the seed of a herb found in the Amazon, long popular among Brazilians for its stimulatory effects.

Guggulsterone
Guggulsterone is a ketosteroid specifically called Z-Guggulsterone. It's effect on the thyroid is that it increases the metabolic rate via stimulation of the tyroid gland. Studies indicate that Guggulsterone can result in higher levels of T4 (Thyroxine), one of the two main thyroid hormones.

Homocysteine

During the last 15 years it has been thoroughly documented that moderately elevated homocysteine levels in serum or plasma is a strong and independent risk factor for occlusive arterial disease, and of venous thrombosis, and also predicts vascular and all-cause mortality. As many as 50% of patients with stroke and other atherothrombotic diseases have high homocysteine levels (over 15 µmol/L). High homocysteine levels are also implicated in development of dementia, or increases the rate of disease' progress. An association with depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders is also found. There is also much focus on the association between carcinogenesis and impaired homocysteine metabolism

Hydroxicitric Acid (HCA)
Also known as Citrimax. Acid found in the fruit Garcinia Cambogia that affects fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Studies have shown it reduces the conversion of carbs into bodyfat. HCA competitively inhibits an enzyme kown as ATP-Citrate lyase (the major enzyme responsible for the production of fatty acid). When HCA blocks the production of fatty acids, a buildup of citrate occurs, which may cause the cell to inhibit glycolysis (breakdown of stored sugars).

HMB
See 'Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate'

HDL
High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol. Protects against cardiovascular disease. HDLs help to shuttle cholesterol out of the blood and back to the liver, where it's degraded into bile that then can be excreted from the body.

Hypoglycemia
A term meaning low blood sugar. It's a set of symptoms that point to irregularities in the way the body handles glucose, the sugar that circulates in the blood. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, trembling, anxiety, fast heartbeat, headache, hunger, weakness, mental confusion, and on occasion, seizures and coma. However, it occurs rarely because the body has a lot of backup systems preventing it.

IGF-1
Stands for Insulin-like growth factor. An important hormone for muscle growth. Naturally produced by the body in response to exercise and is necessary for normal physiological functioning. Found in Cow's milk. Excess of IGF-1 (potential risk of over consumption of dairy products) may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and prostate cancer.

Inositol
An active factor in the B-Complex vitamins which help convert food to energy. With Choline, Inositol is active in the metabolism of fats.

Insulin
An anabolic hormone that's supposed to take the sugar and traansport it into the muscle. Insulin also promotes increased amino acid entry into muscle and increases muscle protein synthesis. Too much insulin can cause sugar to bypass muscle, and be stored as bodyfat.

Ipriflavone
One of many flavonoids, ipriflavone, formally known as 7-isopropoxyisoflavone, is synthesized from the soy isoflavone daidzein. It has anabolic effects that are especially pronounced in bone.

Iron
Mineral essential to oxygen transport in blood (via hemoglobin and myoglobin), enzyme production and immune support. A deficiency can cause the most common form of anemia. Teenagers need additional iron during their years of maximum growth; women need extra iron during the years they are menstruating and during pregnancy.

Isoflavones
Phytonutrient antioxidants, including genisteine and diadzein, that act as estrogen receptor protectors (minimize PMS, menopause side effects) and lower cholesterol levels.

Isoleucine
One of the three branched chain amino acids. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentiate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of postive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burns fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more bodyfat than those not taking BCAA's.

Kombucha
A tea made from a fungus / yeast fermentation with high nutrient level used by people for immune protection, increase energy, and other postive effects. Sometimes called a Kombucha mushroom. It is two life forms, a yeast culture and bacteria living in symbiosis, from Manchuria.

Lactose
Sugar in milk which many people, especially adults, have an intollerance to (indigestion) to to a lack of the enzyme lactasein their bodies.

Lecithin
Dry powder source of phospholipids high in B-fatty acids.

Leptin
This protein was been portrayed as the way to a cure for obesity. Leptin was first described as an apiodocyte - derived signaling factor, which, after interaction with its receptors, induced a complex response, including control of bodyweight and energy expenditure. It could be quite a fat burner. Research shows that people who used high doses of leptin for six months lost weight, most of it bodyfat.

Leucine
One of the three branched chain amino acids. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentiate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of postive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burns fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more bodyfat than those not taking BCAA's.

Leucine appears to be the most important BCAA for athletes, as it can affect various anabolic hormones, and have an effect on preventing protein degradation. HMB is a metabolite of Leucine. Some experts have suggested that if you do not have Leucine in your body, you will not have muscle growth.

Linoleic Acid omega 6
An essential fatty acid (EFA) that your body cannot make itself. It is found in polyunsaturated oils such as safflower, sunflower, walnut oil, hemp etc. This is considered a type of 'good' fat. You need approxiamately 2% of your daily calories as EFA's.

Lipotropic nutrients
Substances that prevent or curtail the buildup of fat in the liver, such as B-fatty acids and methionine.

Lutein
A carotenoid phytonutrient with antioxidant properties especially important to eye protection.

Lycopene
Most powerful of the carotenoid antioxidants; shown to be beneficial in prostate protection and treatment.

Ma Huang
A herb that yields the stimulant Ephedra.

Maltitol
This is a sugar alcohol that is used as a sweetener. It has half the caloric value of sucrose because it is not completely absorbed by the body.

Maltodextrin
A long chain of glucose molecules (carbohydrates) that provides sustained energy without sharply increasing insulin levels. Essentially a chain of molecules of the simple sugar glucose linked together. There are an average of seven glucose molecules linked together to form a maltodextrin molecule.

Manganese
Needed for normal tendon and bone structure.

Magnesium
Mineral necessary for energy metabolism, protein and fat synthesis, neuromuscular transmission, amonia scavenging and binding of calcium to teeth, etc. Aids in bone growth, and is necessary for proper functioning of nerves and muscles.

Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT)
MCT's are technically fats, but they have very unique properties. The difference between them and other fats lies in their molecular structure. MCT's are shorter than other fats, which allows them to be burned rather quickly by the body for energy. MCT's enter the mitochondria, the powerhouse of a cell, without assistance, and do not require the usual transport mechanism.

MCT's are an attractive supplement because of their calorie density. They have 9 calories per gram, like fats, but lack the disposition to be stored as fat. All fats are not created equal. Research shows that it may be possible to maintain a lower bodyfat when using MCT's in place of traditional fats.

They can help you increase lean muscle tissue, decrease excess bodyfat and fuel precompetition workouts.

Melatonin
Hormone produced by the pineal gland that regulates circadian rhythms; helps induce sleep and acts as an antioxidant.

Methionine
A sulfur bearing essential amino acid important in hair, nail and muscle production, liver maintenance (lipotropic effects), and production of creatine and other aminos.

Methoxyflavone
Also called 5-methyl-7-methoxyisoflavone. A synthetic isoflavone that is highly anabolic, yet free of any androgenic effects. It halts the muscle wasting, and increases lean tissue growth. It increases calcium phosphorous, potassium and nutrogen retition to a significant degree.

Mineral
Inorganic substances necessary for good health as an ingrediant or a catalyst.

Mineral (Chelated)
A chelated mineral is generally attached to a protein transporter molecule with the intent of improved transport across the gut to the blood stream. Although some of the minerals are well absorbed in this manner it does not necessarily always indicative of the best form for absorption.

Monounsaturated Fats
An essential fatty acid (EFA) that seems to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is considered a type of 'good' fat. Olive oil, and canola oil have this in them. You need approxiamately 2% of your daily calories as EFA's. It's better to use mono-unsaturated fats if you need fats for cooking - use oils with high smoking points such as avocado oil or macadamia.

N-Acetyl Cysteine
A stable form of the essential amino acid L-cysteine. Cysteine is a precursor for glutathione, an important antioxidant in the body. Cysteine also serves as a major sulfur source for many body components.

NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)
Also known as coenzyme 1, is the coenzymatic form of vitamin B3. NADH is involved in the production of energy in every cell. It supports healthly neurotransmitter functions.

Niacin (Vitamn B-3)
A vitamin Important in carbohydrate metabolism, formation of testosterone and other hormones, formation of red blood cells and maintaining the integrity of all cells. Helps body utilize protein, fats, and carbohydrates. Necessary for a healthy nervous system and digestive system. It also lowers elevated blood cholesterol levels when taken in large amounts of more than 1,000 milligrams a day.

Norandrostenedione
Naturally occuring prohormone that works in a manner similar to Androstenedione, however, results can be much better, and side effects less.

Norepinephrine
A hormone produced by your adrenal glands. Important for many bodily activities, including brain function.

Olestra
A fake fat substitute. This will save you calories, but may also deplete your body of nutrients.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids
An essential fatty acid (EFA) that seems to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is considered a type of 'good' fat. Sources include walnuts, hempseeds, flax/linseed, rape and purslane.. You need approxiamately 2% of your daily calories as EFA's.

Ornithine
A non-essential, non-structural amino acid made from Arginine shown to influence growth hormone release: most anabolic when combined with alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG).

Paba (Para Aminobenzoic Acid)
Important for the formation of red blood cells. Aids in the conversion of protein into energy. Necessary for healthy skin, and hair pigmentation.

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5)
A vitamin which supports carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism; hemoglobin synthesis. Helps release energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Needed to support a variety of body functions, including the maintenance of a healthy digestive system.

Pectin
A soluble fiber found in the skins of fruits (apples and peaches) and vegetables. One study found that eating Pectin will make you feel full longer. Researchers speculate that Pectin may slow digestin and keep food in your stomach longer.

Phaseolus Vulgaris
An ingredient which has been shown to effectively prevent the body from absorbing up to 35 grams of unwanted starch per meal. It is found in white kidney beans.

Phenylalanine
An amino acid, one of the main ingredients to enhance brain function. It has also been used to relieve stress.

Phosphatidylserine (PS)
A phospholid. An ingredient which may block cortisol (a hormone which breaks down muscle cells into fuel). Alsom reported to increase levels of glucose, the brain's energy source.

Phosphorus
Mineral that is structural component of all cells (including muscle); necessary for energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and growth / mainteneance of al tissues.

Polyphenols
Polyphenols are potent and wide ranging in their physiological prperties. They are antioxidants, cancer preventatives, cavity and gingivitis preventatives, prebiotics and even internal deodorizers.

Potassium
Mineral that helps maintain cellular integrity and water balance, nerve transmission and energy metabolism; necessary for muscle contraction. Potassium helps to lower blood pressure, lower risk of stroke, maintain muscle balance and prevent muscle cramping. Potassium helps to reduce the amount of sodium in the body.

Pregnenolone
The "mother" steroid hormone from which most other steroid (sex) hormones are made, including DHEA. Has beneficial neurotransmitter effects.

Proanthocyanadins
Potent antioxidant phytonutrient found in some pine needles (pycnogenol) and grape seeds and skins (grape seed extract), it is especially synergistic with vitamin C making them more powerful antioxidants together than by themselves.

Protein
Primary macronutrient for growth and maintenance of our body's structural parts (including muscle). Cannot be stored, so must be replenished through diet. (1 gram=4 calories).

Protein (Egg)
Source of protein with high Protein Efficiency Ratio, usually in egg white form (albumin) when used in protein powder to avoid cholesterol in egg yolk. Egg protein is the standard by which all other proteins are measured because of its very high ration of indispensable amino acids (also called essential amino acids because they must be supplied to the body from food or supplements) to dispensable amino acids.

Protein (Soy)
Soy protein products can be good substitutes for animal products because, unlike some other beans, soy offers a "complete" protein profile. Soybeans contain all the amino acids essential to human nutrition, which must be supplied in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the human body. Soy protein products can replace animal-based foods--which also have complete proteins but tend to contain more fat, especially saturated fat--without requiring major adjustments elsewhere in the diet.While some cultures, especially Asians, have used soy extensively for centuries, mainstream America has been slow to move dietary soy beyond a niche market status. In the United States, soybean is a huge cash crop, but the product is used largely as livestock feed.

Protein (Whey)
Dairy source of protein .

Protein (Whey Hydrolyzed)
When you hydrolyze whey protein, you permanently modify the native protein structure, meaning that the protein has been denatured. A denatured whey protein has little or no biological activity. The hydrolysis process breaks apart peptide bonds, which destroys the protein structure and the bital whey protein biological activity. However, you still get the amino acids of whey proteins from the hydrolyzed whey protein. Half the reason bodybuilders eat protein is to obtain these healthful smaller protein chains.

Protein (Whey Ion-Exchange)
This special process revolved around the positive and negative charges or ion properties of whey protein. It featured the use of a resin to isolate the protein material from the whey. This is followed by ultrafiltration methods to furthur concentrate the protein. This contains 90% protein, and less than 1% lactose. True ion exchange whey protein is clear in a solution.

Protein (Whey Microfiltration)
Microfiltration Whey Protein features filtering membranes with microscopic holes. This is also sometimes called Cross-Flow filtration, or Nanofiltration, depending on the size of the holes of the filtering membranes.

Purslane
It is a weed that is edible, and sometimes put on salads, mostly in Europe. It is loaded with linolenic acid, and omega-3 fatty acid that may help reduce the risk of heart attack, and improve the health of cell membranes in the eyes and brain. It is also an excellent source of Vitamin E, providing 6 times as much as spinach.

Pycnogenol
Source of proanthocyanadins.

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B-6)
A vitamin which supports glycogen and nitrogen metabolism; production and transport of amino acids; production and maintenance of red blood cells (hemoglobin) Essential for the body's utilization of protein. Needed for the production of red blood cells, nerve tissues, and antibodies. Women taking oral contraceptives have lower levels of B-6.

Pyruvate
A key energy metabolite for the breakdown of fuel (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, etc.) to energy in our bodies, pyruvate can give us increased energy, assist in burning fat as fuel, and have anticatabolic effects (such as producing alanine). Pyruvate acid is alpha - ketopropionic acid. Studies have shown that pyruvate can help decrease fatigue, and increase vigor with only six grams per day.

The human body breaks down carbohydrates for energy though a process called glycolysis. As these sugars and starches are metabolized, pyruvate (pyruvic acid) is produced, which readily enters the mitochondria of cells to create energy fueling the muscles and other parts of the body.

Quercetin
This bioflavonoid occurs in many plant foods. Quercitin has a synergistic effect with ephedrine and caffeine, increasing and prolonging their properties.

Retinol (Vitamin A)
A vitamin with antioxidant properties, important for eye protection and bone growth; protein and hormone synthesis (including GH and testosterone); supports tissue maintenance. Helps reduce susceptibility to infection. Essential for healthy skin, good blood, strong bones and teeth, kidneys, bladder, lungs and membranes.

Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2)
A vitamin which helps with energy production and amino acid production. Helps body obtain energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Helps maintain good vision and healthy skin.

Ribose
Ribose is a simple sugar that is extremely important in many processes in the body. Ribose is found in all living cells. It is the backbone of genetic material, and it is the starting point for production of ATP. Ribose effectively increases ATP and TAN (Total Adenine Nucleotide) recovery, while impriving performance in heart and muscle cells. Ribose also fortifies muscle ATP but through a different pathway than creatine. Ribose also bolsters muscle recovery after your train. Ribose promotes more effcient salvage pathway, thus allowing better ATP recycling and consequent increased muscular recovery after training. If the body does not use the salvage pathway, when ribose is insufficient, it must make ATP from scratch.

Saccharin
An artificial sweetener. It is nearly 700 times sweeter than sugar, yet leaves an aftertaste. It is not metabolized by the human body. It is useful in diabetic diets in which the patient must lower sugar intake. The FDA has listed saccharin as an 'anticipated' human carcinogen. This means that in certain individuals, the sweetener may increase the risk of cancer.

Salatrim
This is a reduced calorie fat that has only five calories per gram, as opposed to nine normally.

SAM-e (S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine)
SAM-e is a naturally occurring molecule in virtually all body tissues and fluids. It is fundamentally important in a number of biochemical reactions involving enzymatic transmethylation, contributing to the synthesis, activation and metabolism of such compounds as hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids and certain drugs.

Saw Palmetto
Herb shown to have protective properties for the liver. It is also shown that Saw Palmetto reduces the size of epithelial tissue in the prostate, especially in the transitional zone.

Selenium
Trace mineral with potent antioxidant effects; component in sulfur bearing amino acid production and fetal development during pregnancy; recent clinical evidence of cancer preventive properties.

Shark Cartilage
See Bovine cartilage.

Sodium
Also known as Salt. Regulates body fluid volume, transports amino acids to cells and plays a role in muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Sodium is an important mineral found in our bones, in the fluids surrounding our cells and in the cardiovascular system. Sodium, with potassium, assists nerve stimulation and regulated water balance. It is also involved in carbohydrate absorption.

The average person requires a minimum of one tenth of a teaspoon of salt a day. Any athlete who sweats needs more. A teaspoon a day of salt does not cause problems, nor does eating fresh foods high in natural salt such as fish, carrots, beets and poultry. Easting processed and junk foods, can lead to high, potentially dangerous levels of sodium intake.

Somatotropin
Known in the medical community as GH or Growth Hormone. It is a powerful anabolic hormone that affects all systems of the body and plays an important role in muscle growth. It is a peptite hormone, which is composed of many amino acids (191 of them) linked togethers. It is rapidly metabolized by the liver and has a half-life in the blood of approxiamately 17 to 45 minutes. Because of this, detecting GH in a drug screen is very hard.

Soy Protein
Primary vegetable source of protein found in protein powders; lower in nitrogen retention and BCAA's than whey and egg, but higher in arginine and glutamine and contains isoflavones with antioxidant properties.

St. John's Wort
Scientific name: Hypericum Performatum. A plant herb that is used to relieve mild depressive symptoms, sleep disorder, and anxiety, although probably not effective against serious depression. In large doses, it may be unsafe as it can make the skin and eyes extra sensitive to light.

Steroids
Steroids are synthetic derivatives of the hormone testosterone that allow the user to gain muscle mass and strength rapidly. In addition to their muscle building effects, anabolic steroids increase the oxidation rate of fat, thus giving the user a more ripped appearance.

Stevia
A herb from Brazil and Paraguay that is a good replacement for sugar and artificial sweeteners. You can also bake with it. Banned in the UK (maybe because Tate and Lyle are so powerful ??)

Stevioside
An artificial sweetener. Extracted from the herb Stevia. It is 300 times sweeter than sugar, but has a strong aftertaste. Not available for sale in the UK.

Sucralose
An artificial sweetener. Approved by the FDA in 1998. It is 600 times sweeter than table sugar, it is is made from a process that begins with regular sugar. You can bake with it. Sucralose was discovered in 1976. Sucrolose is derived from sugar through a patented, multistep processes that selectively substitutes three choline atoms for three hydrogen oxygen groups on the sugar molecule. The tightly bound chlorine atoms create a molecular structure that is esceptionally stable and is approx 600 times sweeter than sugar. The body does not recognize it as sugar or another carbohydrate. The sucralose molecule passes through the body unchanged, it is not metabolized and is eliminated after consumption. Sucrolose has no calories. The alleged acceptable daily intake for sucralose is 5 mg / kg of body weight per day. While it is unlikely that sucralose is as toxic as people are experiencing from Monsanto's aspartame, it is clear from the hazards seen in pre-approval research and from its chemical structure that years or decades of use may contribute to serious chronic immunological or neurological disorders.

Sugar Alcohols
This group of sweeteners includes Mannitol, Sorbitol and Xylitol. Although found in fruit, they are commercially synthesized and not extracted from natural sources. Sugar alchohols provide a reduced glycemic response (no steep hikes in blood sugar). Sugar alcohols are absorbed slowly, but incompletely. This can cause diarrhea in some people.

Taurine
An essential amino acid. Plays a role in cell-membrane stabilization, calcium balance, growth modulation and the regulation of osmotic pressure in the body (water transfer). It is also a key component of bile, which is necessary for fat digestion, absorption of fat-soluable vitamins and control of cholesterol levels. A link has been shown between deficiency in this amino and retinal dysfunction (eye problems).

Testosterone
Studies says that even minute amounts of it can fuel both the male and female sex drives and slightly larger amounts will speed the muscle building process.

Theanine
A unique amino acid found in green teas. The greater the theanine content in green tea, the higher the price. Theanine increases GABA levels in the brain and counteracts high and even toxic doses of stimulants, such as caffeine. Sleep time is improved, spontaneous physical hyperactivity is decreased and toxicity reactions are markedly reduced. Theanine can help ofset the length and intensity of the stimulatory effects of alpha and beta-agonists and caffeine. It goes beyond helping you relax and sleep well for one night. Be reversing the excitatory state quickly and safely and promoting relaxation and restoration of your brain chemisty, you are in effect priming your body for stimulation once again the following day. That should allow you not only to grow, but to get even beter results from your supplements.

Thermogenesis
A word meaning heat-producing. To make more heat, your body has to burn more calories. Thermogenesis occurs with training, with food consumption, and with the use of selected herbs.

Thiamin (Vitamin B-1)
A vitamin which maintains energy levels, supports brain function (memory). Aids in digestion. Necessary for metabolism of sugar and starch to provide energy. Maintains a healthy nervous system. Alcohol can cause deficiencies of this vitamin and all the B-complex vitamins.

Tribulus Terrestris
A herb for sexual deficiency or as a mild aphrodisiac. It may increase libido and serum testosterone.

Tryptophan
An essential amino acid, known for its calming and mood enhancing effectcs. It is a naturally occuring ingredient in turkey that mellows you out and makes you want to take a nap after the Thanksgiving feast. Tryptophan can also be called 5-HTP (5-hydrotryptophan) which is make with a slightly different compound that regular tryptophan.

Tyrosine
A conditionally essential amino acid, tyrosine can elevate mood and is a precursor of the brain neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine.

Valine
One of the three branched chain amino acids. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentiate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of postive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burns fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more bodyfat than those not taking BCAA's.

Vanadyl Sulfate
Source of mineral vanadium; helps optimize glycogen storage to yield more energy. Vanadyl is supposed to help you attain a little more muscle and inhibit fat storage by controlling insulin release. In theory, Vanadyl works inside the muscle cells by bringing carbohydrates into the muscle without the assistance of insulin. If there is less insulin, there is less chance of carbohydrates being converted to stored bodyfat.

Vitamins
Complex organic molecules essential for biochemical transformations necessary for proper metabolism and disease protection. Some popular vitamins are:

A: (Retinol)
A vitamin with antioxidant properties, important for eye protection and bone growth; protein and hormone synthesis (including GH and testosterone); supports tissue maintenance. Helps reduce susceptibility to infection. Essential for healthy skin, good blood, strong bones and teeth, kidneys, bladder, lungs and membranes.
B-Complex Vitamins
A group of eleven known vitamins that work together in your body. All play vital roles in the conversion of food into energy. Essential for the normal functioning of the nervous system, and the maintenance of good digestion. Helps promote healthy skin, hair, and eyes. These are water soluble vitamins, which means they cannot be stored by your body and must be replaced every day.
B-1 (Thiamin)
Maintains energy levels, supports brain function (memory). Aids in digestion. Necessary for metabolism of sugar and starch to provide energy. Maintains a healthy nervous system. Alcohol can cause deficiencies of this vitamin and all the B-complex vitamins.
B-2 (Riboflavin)
Energy production and amino acid production. Helps body obtain energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Helps maintain good vision and healthy skin.
B-3 (Niacin)
Important in carbohydrate metabolism, formation of testosterone and other hormones, formation of red blood cells and maintaining the integrity of all cells. Helps body utilize protein, fats, and carbohydrates. Necessary for a healthy nervous system and digestive system. It also lowers elevated blood cholesterol levels when taken in large amounts of more than 1,000 milligrams a day.

B-5 (Pantothenic Acid)
Supports carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism; hemoglobin synthesis. Helps release energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Needed to support a variety of body functions, including the maintenance of a healthy digestive system.

B-6 (Pyridoxine)
Supports glycogen and nitrogen metabolism; production and transport of amino acids; production and maintenance of red blood cells (hemoglobin) Essential for the body's utilization of protein. Needed for the production of red blood cells, nerve tissues, and antibodies. Women taking oral contraceptives have lower levels of B-6.

B-12 (Cobalamin)
Necessary for carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Important to amino acid and fatty acid synthesis; essential for hemoglobin and nerve cell growth and maintenance. The anti-stress vitamin, sometimes prescribed for stress reduction.
Biotin
Energy metabolism, fatty acid and nucleic acid synthesis.

C (Ascorbic acid)
Antioxidant, synthesis of hormones, amino acids and collagen (connective tissue); excretion of excess cholesterol. Necessary to produce collagen, the connective material of all body tissues. Important for the health of the teeth and the gums. Strengthens capillaries and other blood vessels. Plays an important role in healing injuries. Aids in the body's absorption of iron. Vitamin C is water soluble, which means it cannot be stored by your body and must be frequently replaced.

D (Calciferol)
Supports calcium absorption and deposition into bones. Must be present for your body to use calcium and phosphorus. Essential for growing children to insure that teeth and bones develop properly. Vitamin D can be made by your body from sunshine.

E (d-alpha-tocopherol)
Antioxidant, especially protective of polyunsaturated fats and body tissues. Acts as a preservative, preventing many substances, such as Vitamin A, from destructive breakdown by oxidation in the body. Prolongs the life of red blood cells. Necessary for the proper use of oxygen by the muscles.

Folic Acid
Necessary for the production of red blood cells. Essential for normal metabolism. A deficiency may cause a form of anemia. Drinking alcohol and taking oral contraceptives can cause lower levels of this vitamin in your body. Especially important during pregnancy to prevent birth defects.

K
Supports blood clotting, bone mineralization.

Whey protein
Dairy source of protein (other than cassein), known for high levels of BCAA's and high nitrogen retention. Made from milk curd, whey protein has good amino acid composition (including high levels of leucine, arguably the most important branched chain amino acid), better biological value (meaning that more of what you eat gets digested and into your system), is lower in lactose (a milk sugar that most adults have difficulty digesting).

Willow Bark
White willow bark is a source of salicin, a chemical relative of asparin. The effects of willow bark are milk pain inhibition, and increased blood flow to the skin and greater heat loss.

Xylitol

Commercial name for a naturally occuring sugar called xylose commonly derived from corncobs or birch trees. Only 5 carbon atoms rather than 6 as most other sugars, very low carb and low GI (7) /GL so good for diabetics and slimmers, a bacteria inhibitor and thus favoured by dentists.

Yohimbe
From the bark of an African tree, Yohimbe is a popular herb percieved as a stimulant and aphrodisiac. Yohimbe contains yohimbine, an alkaloid similar to caffeine in it's energizing effects.

Zinc
Mineral important as a cofactor in energy metabolism, amino acid and protein synthesis; Antioxidant effects to protect the immune system. Essential for growth, tissue repair, and sexual development. Plays an important role in healing. Since animal proteins are the best sources, vegetarians are often deficient in zinc.

ZMA - Zinc Magnesium Aspartate
This compound has been found to increase muscle strength.